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  • HortFlora Research Spectrum
  • HortFlora Research Spectrum
  • HortFlora Research Spectrum
  • HortFlora Research Spectrum
  • HortFlora Research Spectrum
Journal : HortFlora Research Spectrum
Volume : Volume 7, Issue 3: September 2018
Page (s) : 229-233
Date of Publication
Print :
Article Type : Review Article
Online : 11-Oct-2018
A Review on Female Work Force Participation in Indian Agri-Horticulture Sector
Akhilesh Chandra Singh and Sheetla Prasad Verma*
*Corresponding Author's E-mail :


India is one of the youngest countries in the world, with a significant segment of its 1.2 billion population in the age group of 20-35 years. A large segment of India’s working women continue to be engaged in rural agri-horticultural activities. While the country is still largely an agrarian economy. Latest government statistics suggest that women’s labour participation rate fell from 29.4 per cent in 2004-2005 to 22.5 per cent in 2011-2012. The gender gap in the labour force is particularly stark when we consider that in the 15-59 age group, women’s participation is only 32 per cent in rural areas compared to 83 per cent for men, and 21 per cent in urban areas compared to 81 per cent for men. According to the ILO, in 2011-12. While, 62.8 per cent of women were employed in the agriculture sector. It is estimated that about 60% of all agricultural operations are handled exclusively by women. Female hourly wage rates in agriculture vary from 50 to 75% of male rates, and are too low to overcome absolute poverty. Women play a significant and crucial role in agricultural development and allied fields including in the main crop production, livestock production, horticulture, post harvest operations, agro/social forestry, fisheries, etc. The nature and extent of women’s involvement in agriculture, no doubt, varies greatly from region to region. Rural Women form the most important productive work force in the economy of majority of the developing nations including India. Agriculture sector employs 4/5th of all economically active women in the country. Women’s dependence on agricultural wage labour as a source of income has also increased in the regions with the destruction of many house hold based industries employing mainly by women.

Cite this article as:
Singh A.C. and Verma S.P. (2018). A review on female work force participation in Indian Agri-Horticulture sector. HortFlora Res. Spectrum, 7(3): 229-233
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